Slavin, Lake, Davis and Madden (2011)1 found, during a review of 97 studies about struggling readers, that one-on-one tutoring is the most effective strategy to reach struggling readers, especially when the tutoring is done by a teacher and not a volunteer or a paraprofessional. Of course, one-to-one tutoring does not seem to be practical in a real classroom setting by a regular classroom teacher, but when schools think of multi-tiered reading interventions, as required by the Response to Intervention implementations, one-to-one tutoring can work for a tier 3 intervention (if you are not aware of RtI, please read this article by Fuchs & Fuchs (2006)2 ).


In this section of the trail, you are going to:
  • 1.) read 6 struggling reader profiles related to the following 6 different reading areas (1.) Phonological and phonemic awareness; 2.) Word decoding and phonics; 3.) Vocabulary; 4.) Fluency; 5.) Comprehension and 6.) Other sources of reading difficulty (Processing, Memory, Attention and English Language Learners) using this file:
    • a.) identify one struggling reading area from the list that you would like to learn more about
    • b.) use the E.H.Butler library to find a research article that pertains to this reading area
    • c.) read the article, summarize the article or use Adobe Acrobat or Preview to highlight important notes, email me the article (with the optional highlights) and/or the summary to shivelct@buffalostate.edu



1 - Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Davis, S., & Madden, N. A. (2011). Effective programs for struggling readers: A best-evidence synthesis. Educational Research Review, 6(1), 1–26.

2 - Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, Why, and How Valid Is It? Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 93–99.